Pet Care Info

An Ounce of Prevention: The Basics of Pet Dental Care

Most of us are not exactly excited about looking into our pet’s mouths (I only see 2 teeth – the fangs!). But when it comes to pet dental care, the saying “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” is absolutely true. It has been reported that by 3 years of age, 85% of cats and dogs have some form of dental disease. Felton Veterinary Hospital is here to give you the basics of this common but preventable problem.

 

First, the true nitty gritty. You brush your teeth twice a day (right?) and still visit your dentist for a cleaning twice a year. Imagine what your mouth would feel like if you never brushed or saw the dentist! It’s true that our pets’ teeth don’t have to look picture perfect, but keeping their teeth and gums clean and healthy can be one of the most beneficial things you can do as a pet owner to keep them happy and healthy for longer.

What is Periodontal Disease?

Periodontal disease begins when bacteria in the mouth form plaque, which, left unchecked, accumulates along the gum line and then causes inflammation called gingivitis. Plaque hardens into tartar along the gum line, but the real problems start when bacteria travel below the gum line.

 

When that occurs, inflammation and infection can affect the internal structures of the tooth, root, and even the bone beneath. Periodontal disease in its more severe stages can cause tooth fracture or loss. Unfortunately if periodontal disease is left untreated, bacteria can also find its way into the pet’s blood stream and can affect the heart, liver and kidneys, while making diseases such as diabetes harder to manage. Sadly, periodontal disease has been linked to a shorter life span for our pets.

What are the Signs of Periodontal Disease?

Like people, pets as individuals have different signs of disease based on age, temperament, breed, and overall general health. Although you may hear it often, a pet has to have extreme dental disease in order to refuse to eat. It’s just not that common! Earlier and more common signs of periodontal disease include:

 

  • Bad breath
  • Red or bleeding gums
  • Drooling
  • Difficulty chewing (which may look like messy eating)
  • Pawing at the mouth
  • Loose teeth
  • Swollen or recessed gums

How is Periodontal Disease Prevented?

Luckily, periodontal disease is preventable. The very best way to prevent it is to brush your pet’s teeth daily. We know, we can see the collective eye roll. But before you give us the total brush off (ahem!), hear us out. There are all sorts of fancy toothbrushes out there, but in reality the most important thing is that the brushing happens. So we are all for making it simple. We can show you how to brush your pet’s teeth, and it can be with a regular pet toothbrush, finger brush, or even by using your finger wrapped with gauze (assuming this would be safe to do with your pet).

 

Of course starting early with your puppy or kitten can get them used to brushing early in life, and can therefore become a ho-hum daily process for them. There are some (not all!) dental chews, diets (such as Hills Dental Diet T/D), washes, and treats that can help too. Your veterinarian may recommend one of these as an addition to your at home dental program. But, there really is no substitute for brushing!

Dental Treatment

The frequency of the need for professional dental cleanings will be based on your pet’s age, breed, stage of dental disease, and overall general health. Most pets need a cleaning every 3-4 years. During a dental cleaning under anesthesia, your pet’s entire mouth will be effectively evaluated. Their teeth and gums will be assessed, and problem areas will be recorded.  Any teeth that cannot be saved will be removed, with your permission. The teeth will be cleaned above and below the gum line, where periodontal disease does it’s dirty work. And, your pet’s teeth will be given a polish to prevent future plaque buildup.

A Word About Anesthesia

Many clients are worried about anesthetic risk. It’s the single most common reason that pet owners put off preventive dental cleanings for their pets. But thanks to advancements in anesthesiology, we have made this procedure safer than ever. It’s true there is a risk with any anesthesia, but if you’re concerned, talk to us and we can show you how we’ve made anesthesia as safe as possible for your beloved friend – less than 0.1% of patients seen at Felton Veterinary Hospital have anesthetic complications!

An Ounce of Prevention

Remember that we started with this old adage? We hope you see now how true it is, with pet dental care. For more information or if you have questions, give us a call. We’re always happy to answer questions about your pet’s health and happiness.

In With the New: New Year’s Resolutions for Pet Owners

Have you made any New Year’s resolutions yet? 2017 has wound down, and with 2018 just beginning it’s a great time to look ahead and think about what we want to do differently this year. Maybe you want to eat better, hit the gym more frequently, and enjoy life more? Well, why not include your pet in some of your new year’s resolutions? Not sure where to start? The team at Felton Veterinary Hospital has you covered. Below are some ideas for New Year’s resolutions for pet owners, to get the New Year started off right for your pet.

 

Feed the Best Quality Diet You Can

Is one of your resolutions to eat better? Our pets are no different! Feeding a high quality, balanced diet can do so much to lengthen their lives and help keep them healthy and feeling great. There are so many diet options out there, but each pet is an individual. So, talk to us about your pet’s nutrition needs at your next preventive care appointment.

 

Extra credit: Measure your pet’s food each and every time you feed, to prevent unwanted weight gain. Ask us for a free pet food measuring cup!

 

Establish a Daily Grooming Routine

Not every dog and cat needs a daily brushing (although some do!), but establishing a daily rub down or brushing has many benefits. Of course, one is that removing loose hair means fewer hairballs across your living room floor!

 

But grooming has other benefits too. During these daily sessions, you’ll become familiar with your pet’s body, and any lumps, bumps, or changes will be more easily noticed. The sooner you can have your veterinarian check things out, the sooner action can be taken, and early detection of disease can often mean a better prognosis.

 

Stay on Track with Preventive Care

The old adage “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” is absolutely true in veterinary medicine. At Felton Veterinary Hospital, preventive care is tailored to the individual pet, but our preventive care exam will include discussion with you about the following:

 

  • Comprehensive, nose-to-tail physical exam
  • Monthly flea, tick, and heartworm prevention
  • Early detection diagnostic tests as warranted by your pet’s age and condition
  • Dental health grading, oral health and regular teeth brushing
  • Body condition scoring and nutrition

 

Make sure to schedule your pet’s annual or biannual preventive care exam. And, January is a great time to also schedule your pet’s monthly preventives in your iCal, or whatever calendar system you use. It’s so easy to set reminders nowadays, that keeping track of your pet’s monthly dose of flea, tick, and heartworm preventive is literally push button. It might feel like an investment, but keeping up to date on preventive care can save you money in the long run.

 

Update their tags

Unfortunately pets do get lost. If you have moved or changed phone numbers, take the time to update your pet’s tags with your current contact information. Make sure your pet’s microchip is registered with the correct information as well. A microchip is the single best way to ensure a reunion with you if your pet is ever lost, but only if the registration information is accurate!

 

Carve Out Time to Play

Play is so important for all of us! Kittens and puppies as well as adult dogs and cats thrive on daily play, and there are so many ways to do that in our area. Why not teach your dog a new trick, or combine your workout routine? Cats can also learn new tricks and thrive on new and fun toys and games. Get creative, and see how good it makes you feel to play, too!

 

So, there you have them – our top ideas for New Year’s resolutions for pet owners. And these goals aren’t just good for your pets – strengthening the bond between you is good for you, too. If you have any questions or want more ideas, give us a call. We’re always ready to help you keep your pet healthy and happy!

Happy New Year, and cheers!

 

Tinsel, Turkey, and Travel, Oh My! Holiday Safety for Pets

The holiday season is upon us, and many of us want to include our furry family members in the celebrations. As you prepare for the holidays, remember that it is important to try and keep your pet’s exercise and feeding routine as normal as possible. To help you along in this magical time of year, the team at Felton Veterinary Hospital has compiled some tips for celebrating the holidays safely with your pet.

Decorations

The Tree — Perhaps the quintessential holiday icon, the Christmas tree can pose some health hazards for dogs and cats. You may want to secure the tree to the wall, so that it can’t tip over. Watch carefully that pets don’t drink the Christmas tree water, which could cause stomach upset or diarrhea.

Poisonous Plants — Holly, mistletoe, and poinsettias all pose serious risks to pets if ingested. Substitute silk flowers and place them high up where they cannot be ingested.

Tinsel and Lights — Kitties especially love tinsel and twinkling lights, and often can’t resist bringing them down for some chewing. However the nibble can result in a swallow, which can lead to digestive tract issues, possibly requiring surgery. Hang them high, or decorate your tree with something else.

Ornaments — Glass and delicate ornaments can break, possibly cutting a paw or mouth. Keep ornaments to soft felt or wood, and again you may want to hang them high to avoid curious paws from reaching them.

Holiday Foods for Pets to Avoid

Common holiday foods that we all love to share can pose some serious health risks for our pets. If you want to share with your pets, keep it simple – a small piece of well cooked, lean turkey meat, unseasoned carrots or green beans, or a dollop of pumpkin puree can all be lovely treats for your furry friends this season. To avoid a trip to the emergency veterinary service this holiday season, here are the top holiday foods for pets to avoid.

  • Chocolate
  • Alcohol
  • Xylitol
  • Macadamia Nuts
  • Fatty Table Scraps
  • Bones
  • Grapes and Raisins
  • Onions, Garlic, and Chives
  • Yeast dough

Holiday Visitors

Pets are creatures of routine and habit, and holiday visitors and loud gatherings may be stressful for them. To keep them calm and happy, here are some tips

A Quiet Place — Make sure your pet has a comfortable quiet place inside to retreat to if they wish. A crate or a room away from the action can let your pet calm down and give them a welcome break from the action.

Prep Ahead — let your guests know that you have pets, in case of allergies.

Exotic Pets — Exotic pets may be especially stressed by gatherings. Keep them safely away from the hubbub of the holidays.

Watch the Door — make sure your pet cannot slip out during comings and goings and get lost.

Microchip and Tags — Speaking of lost, make sure pets have a well-fitting collar and tags to make sure they can be identified if lost. Better yet, a microchip with up-to-date registration information can be your pet’s best chance of a reunion with you, should they slip out and get lost.

Clear the Food — Make sure food is cleared away before your pet can counter or table surf. Many a case of pancreatitis has been started by pets that get to a carcass or trash can during the holiday feast.

Wrapping Paper and Ribbon — Trash should be cleared away immediately, before curious pets can be tempted.

If you have other questions or concerns about how to keep your pets safe during the holidays, don’t hesitate to contact us. With a little planning and preparation, you can include your pets safely in your holiday celebrations!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Swimming for Weight Loss – In dogs?

dog swimming

As we all think about getting into our swim suits this summer, perhaps the question on our minds is- oops- how can I lose a little weight? In addition to saying no to that next ice cream cone, swimming is often the answer for many people when they think about how to lose a few extra pounds. Guess what? For dogs, it is often the same (minus the ice cream!)

 

dogs resting in grass

Jake & Molly

Jake’s story

When Dianne brought her chocolate Labrador Retriever, Molly, in to see Dr Atton, she was 114 lbs and overweight. Dr Atton told Dianne that Molly needed to lose weight, and he meant it! It was hard work and took a lot of perseverance, canned pumpkin, and string beans, but after a year Molly reached her goal weight. Her favorite exercise is power walking!

Weekly weigh- ins are an important part of any weight loss program, and Molly was no exception! During one of the many trips Dianne made with Molly to weigh in, she saw a beautiful yellow lab named Jake in the lobby with his owner. Dianne commented on how handsome he was, and after he and his owner left, she learned that he was looking for a new home. After many days of discussion, Dianne and her husband decided to adopt Jake.

Like Molly, Jake was overweight, but now Dianne was an expert in doggy weight loss! Jake was put on a diet, and it was discovered that his favorite exercise is swimming!

Why is swimming a good option for weight loss in dogs?

Swimming is a great form of aerobic exercise and is good for dogs both young and old. “Swimming is potentially a year round opportunity for exercise for dogs with joint  or back problems”, says Dr. Atton of Felton Veterinary Hospital,  “and, just like with humans, many muscle groups are utilized  so it’s truly  a whole body exercise and many dogs absolutely love it!”

How can you tell if your dog needs to lose weight?

There are standards in veterinary care for how to tell if your pet is too thin, an ideal weight, or overweight. Your veterinarian can help you to determine your pet’s body condition and will likely use a chart similar to the one shown below.

It is important to have your veterinarian guide you in a weight loss plan that is tailored to your pet’s nutritional needs, along with a monitoring/ follow up program to monitor and maintain progress in a healthy way.

Dog Body Condition Chart

Is your dog overweight?

Where can I swim my dog in the Santa Cruz area?

There are a few areas that are well known, and some not so well known, where dogs are allowed to swim in Santa Cruz County. For fitness, a swimming pool is often preferred. For fun, here are some ideas!

Mitchell’s Cove State Beach – is the only beach in Santa Cruz where dogs are allowed off leash, and only before 10:00 am and after 4:00 pm.

It’s State Beach – Dogs are allowed on leash only and this commonly referred to “Dog” beach.

Hidden Beach- Aptos

Beer Can Beach- Aptos

Antonelli Pond – Delaware

Want more ideas for where to take your dog in Santa Cruz County? Check out this great blog with lots of good info on on-leash and off-leash fun with your dog.

http://santacruzlife.com/dog-friendly-santa-cruz/#off-leash

Outfox Foxtails – Protecting Your Dog against Foxtails

Does your dog hike or run with you in grassy open areas? Or do they love to go sniffing in overgrown areas in your yard or neighborhood?  Uh oh, foxtail season is HERE. Here’s how to recognize, and more importantly, prevent these nasty weeds from hurting your dog.

What is a foxtail?

A foxtail is a grass-like weed that blooms every spring and releases barbed seed heads. These barbs can work their way into any part of your dog’s body- including eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and even directly into the skin. Because of their barbed nature they tend to be very difficult to remove, and even worse, they can travel beyond sight very quickly.

Where does foxtail grass grow?

If you’re out and about with your dog you’ve probably seen this weed growing everywhere. It can be found in grassy areas, in yards, and even in the sidewalk cracks! Because of heavy rains this winter, foxtails are on the rise this season due to the heavy rains this past winter.

 

Why are they dangerous?

The danger of foxtails goes beyond simple irritation. The seed heads don’t break down in the body, so an embedded foxtail can lead to a serious infection for your dog. Like an arrow, they only travel one way – deeper into your pet’s body – and don’t come out on their own. If caught early they are relatively easy for your vet to remove. But if left untreated they can cause infection, and in serious cases, can travel through the body to your pet’s internal organs and even cause death.

How do I tell if my pet has a foxtail?

Foxtails are most commonly found in the nose, ears, eye, or between the toes, but can enter the body anywhere. Here are the most common symptoms to look for.

Nose: Nasal discharge and/or sudden onset of violent sneezing can indicate a foxtail in the nose.

Ear: If your pet is shaking his head, tilting it to the side, or scratching at the ear incessantly this could be an indication of a foxtail in the ear canal. They are usually so deep that you can’t see them and your veterinarian needs to take a look with a special scope.

Eyes: Discharge, redness, squinting, and swelling all could indicate a foxtail in the eye.

Feet: Foxtails love your pet’s feet and can get lodged in between toes in particular. If you notice limping, swelling, discharge or tenderness of the feet, a foxtail could be the problem.

scope/tools to remove foxtails

Tools used to remove foxtails from your dog’s throat.

Outfox the foxtails- tips for prevention

What can you do during foxtail season to make sure these nasty weeds don’t prevent your outdoor fun? Examine your pet’s coat after outdoor time, especially if you have gone walking in open fields. Check your pet’s face and ears carefully, as well as their mouth, paws, and in between toes. Brush your pet as necessary, paying special attention to feathery, thick, or curly fur.  Use tweezers to remove any foxtails you can easily get to, but remember that foxtails won’t come out on their own, so if you see any deeply embedded or if the area is red or swollen, call your veterinarian right away.

If you have what we lovingly refer to as a “foxtail magnet,” consider trimming your pet’s fur during foxtail season, and keep your dog out of overgrown, grassy areas.

Our own adorable foxtail magnet is Bugsy!

Bugsy is a lovable  2 yr old Staffordshire Terrier mix who came in to see us not once, but TWICE within 2 weeks for the removal of foxtails from his tonsils. Ouch! His owners Chelsea and David brought him in the first time after a night of intermittent gagging.

Dog with Foxtail

Bugsy AKA  foxtail magnet

In order to see what was going on and provide Bugsy with a calm, non-threatening experience, Dr Keil sedated him with a safe anesthetic. She then used a special scope to get a good look at what was going on. She found green foxtails embedded in his tonsils, along with tons of redness, swelling, and bleeding. Poor guy! Dr Keil removed the foxtails, Bugsy recovered well from the sedative, and he was then sent home feeling much better. Needless to say, after this event, Chelsea & David removed all foxtails from their yard!

But our little Bugsy was not to be deterred!  Two weeks later, he escaped from his yard. He was found in a neighbor’s yard eating foxtails! This time Chelsea and David did not wait for symptoms and brought him right in for sedation and scoping. Once again, fearless Dr Keil sedated and scoped to get a look. Again we found foxtails in addition to spiny oak leaves . Double ouch! Once again the plants were removed and Bugsy recovered well.

No more escaping for Bugsy, and hopefully, no more foxtails in the throat.

foxtails removed from dog's throat

Foxtails removed from Bugsy’s throat.

Top 8 Reasons Your Senior Pet Should See A Vet

Dr-Robert-Atton-Felton-Vet-Hospital-owner

Our pets love us unconditionally and provide us (their humans) with companionship, love, fun, and exercise. Our pets are good for us in so many ways – mentally, emotionally, and it’s been proven over and over that even our physical health benefits from our relationships with our pet companions.

Senior Pets (defined as seven years or older for most dogs and cats, and 6 years in larger dog breeds) can experience many of the same problems seen in older people – such as:

• Cancer
• Heart Disease
• Kidney and Urinary Tract disease
• Liver Disease
• Diabetes
• Joint or Bone disease
• Senility
• Weakness

Your pet’s health in later years is not entirely under your control but with a regular health examination and simple diagnostic tests, many of the problems associated with aging can be spotted even before symptoms show.

The cornerstone of preventative care is a once-a-year, or ideally twice-a year health examination for your senior pet. During these visits, your veterinarian can review other preventative care strategies such as good nutrition, parasite control, and maintaining a healthy weight and an active lifestyle.

Due to improved veterinary care and dietary habits, pets are living longer now than they have ever before. There are many medication, supplement, and diet changes that can benefit your pet for senior issues including: Liver and kidney disease, cardiovascular and respiratory disease, diabetes, thyroid diseases, obesity, cognitive dysfunction (pet senility), and more. One result of this is that pets, along with their human companions and veterinarians, are faced with a whole new set of age-related conditions. In recent years there has been extensive research on the problems facing older pets and how to best address their special needs. Next week we will explore some ideas to do this!

Vestibular Disease

Email this article Vestibular Disease

 

What on Earth is the Vestibular Apparatus?

In a nutshell, the vestibular apparatus is the neurological equipment responsible for perceiving your body’s orientation relative to the earth (determining if you are upside down, standing up straight, falling etc.), which inform your eyes and extremities how they should move accordingly.

The vestibular apparatus allows us to walk, even run, on uneven ground without falling, helps us know when we need to right ourselves, and allows our eyes to follow moving objects without becoming dizzy.

Copyright VIN 2012

There are two sets of receptors involved: one to detect rotational acceleration (tumbling or turning) and one to detect linear acceleration and gravity (falling and letting us know which direction is up and which is down). Both receptors are located in the middle ear.

Rotation is detected using the three semicircular canals as shown above. These canals contain fluid called endolymph, which moves as your head rotates. Tiny neurological hair cells project into this fluid and are stimulated by the flow. These hair cells are part of sensory nerves that carry the appropriate message to the cerebellum (part of the brain that coordinates locomotion) and to four vestibular nuclei in the brain stem.

Up and down orientation stems from small weighted bodies called otoliths, which are located within the utricle and saccule of the middle ear. These small otoliths move with gravity within a gelatinous medium, stimulating small hair cells as they move similar to the situation described above.

From these centers, instructions are carried by nerve cells to the legs, neck, and eye muscles so that we may orient ourselves immediately. The information about being upside down (or in some other abnormal orientation) is also sent to the hypothalamus (an area of the brain) so that we can become consciously aware of our position. The information is also sent to the reticular formation (another area of the brain – a sort of a volume control on our state of wakefulness. In this way, if we are asleep and start to fall, the vestibular stimulations would wake us up. This is also why rolling an anesthetized animal from side to side is used to hasten anesthetic recovery).

The Signs of Vestibular Disease

A head tilt is seen on Milou, a dog with vestibular disease. At the time this photo was taken Milou was not able to walk, but was nearly normal within 4 days.

If there is trouble in the vestibular apparatus, then you may not properly perceive your orientation. To put it more simply, you won’t know which way is up, whether or not you are standing up straight or slanted, and you’ll feel dizzy.

The following are signs of vestibular disease:

  • Ataxia (lack of coordination without weakness or involuntary spasms – in other words, stumbling and staggering around).
  • Motion sickness.
  • Nystagmus (back and forth or rotational eye movements. The movements will be slower in one direction. This is the side where the neurologic lesion is likely to be; however, nystagmus is named according to the direction of the fast component – i.e. there may be left nystagmus but the lesion is probably on the right side of the vestibular apparatus.)
  • Circling (usually toward the side of the lesion).
  • Head tilt (usually toward the side of the lesion).
  • Falling to one side (usually toward the side of the lesion).
  • Trouble with other nerves controlling the head and face.

Causes of Vestibular Disease

The most common causes of vestibular disease are:

  • Middle ear infection
  • Brain lesion
  • Idiopathic (unknown)

For more info go to veterinarypartner.com

Heartworm

What Happens in Heartworm Disease
By Wendy C. Brooks DVM, DABVP

 

Heartworm Disease vs. Heartworm Infection

Before reviewing the clinical signs seen in heartworm disease, an important distinction must be made between heartworm disease and heartworm infection. Heartworm infection by definition means the host animal (generally a dog) is parasitized by at least one life stage of the heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis). Dogs with heartworms in their bodies do not necessarily have adult worms in their hearts; they may have larval heartworms in their skin only. Dogs with heartworms in their bodies are not necessarily sick, either. Dogs with only larvae of one stage or another are not sick and it is controversial how dangerous it is for a dog to have only one or two adult heartworms. These dogs are certainly infected but they do not have heartworm disease.

On the other hand, dogs with heartworm disease are sick. They not only have the infection but they have any of the problems listed below because of it. Fortunately, heartworm disease is both treatable and preventable. Further sections of this web page explain both treatment and prevention; we will now discuss the damage heartworms can do to a dog’s body.

For more info go to veterinarypartner.com

Fleas

 

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Fleas: Know your Enemy

 

Despite numerous technological advances, fleas continue to represent a potentially lethal plague upon our pets. Current products are effective so there is little reason for this; the problem seems to be one of understanding.
There are over 1900 flea species in the world. Pet owners are concerned with only one: Ctenocephalides felis, the cat flea. This is the flea that we find on our pets (cats, dogs, rabbits, and other species) in 99.9% of cases and in order to understand how to control the damage caused by this tiny little animal, you should learn all you can about it.

What Kind of Damage Can Fleas Cause?

It would be a grave mistake to think of the flea as simply a nuisance. A heavy flea burden is lethal, especially to smaller or younger animals. The cat flea is not at all selective about its host and has been known to kill dairy calves through heavy infestation. Conditions brought about via flea infestation include:

• Flea Allergic Dermatitis (fleas do not make animals itchy unless there a flea bite allergy)

• Flea Anemia

• Feline Infectious Anemia (a life-threatening blood parasite carried by fleas)

• Cat Scratch Fever/Bartonellosis (does not make the cat sick but the infected cat can make a person sick)

• Common Tapeworm infection (not harmful but cosmetically unappealing)

Fleas can kill pets.

This is so important that we will say it again: Most people have no idea that fleas can kill. On some level, it is obvious that fleas are blood-sucking insects but most people never put it together that enough fleas can cause a slow but still life-threatening blood loss. This is especially a problem for elderly cats who are allowed to go outside. These animals do not groom well and are often debilitated by other diseases. The last thing a geriatric pet needs to worry about is a lethal flea infestation and it is important that these animals be well protected.
Also consider that in about 90% of cases where an owner thinks the pet does not have fleas, a veterinarian finds obvious fleas when a flea comb is used. Despite the TV commercials, the educational pamphlets, the common nature of the parasite, there are still some significant awareness problems and a multitude of misconceptions.

For more info go to veterinarypartner.com

Diabetes Mellitus

* Diabetes Mellitus Center

 

What is Diabetes Mellitus?

In order to understand the problems involved in diabetes mellitus, it is necessary to understand something of the normal body’s metabolism.

Illustration by Wendy Brooks, DVM
Illustration by Wendy Brooks, DVM

 

The pancreas is nestled along the stomach and small intestine. It secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine but it also secretes hormones into the bloodstream to regulate blood sugar.

The cells of the body require a sugar known as glucose for food and they depend on the bloodstream to bring glucose to them. They cannot, however, absorb and utilize glucose without a hormone known as insulin. This hormone, insulin, is produced by the pancreas. Insulin is like a key that unlocks the door to separate cells from the sugars in our bloodstream.

Glucose comes from the diet. When an animal goes without food, the body must break down fat, stored starches, and protein to supply calories for the hungry cells. Proteins and starches may be converted into glucose. Fat, however, requires different processing that can lead to the production of ketones rather than glucose. Ketones are another type of fuel that the body can use in a pinch but the detection of ketones indicates that something wrong is happening in the patient’s metabolism. Ketones may therefore be detected in the urine of starving animals because of massive fat mobilization is required for ketone formation. Ketones can also be detected in diabetic ketoacidosis, a severe complication of unregulated diabetes so it is helpful to periodically monitor for ketones in a diabetic patient’s urine. The point is, for now, that in times of extreme fat burning (such as in starvation), ketones are a byproduct.

For more info go to veterinarypartner.com