Pet Care Info

Top 8 Reasons Your Senior Pet Should See A Vet

Dr-Robert-Atton-Felton-Vet-Hospital-owner

Our pets love us unconditionally and provide us (their humans) with companionship, love, fun, and exercise. Our pets are good for us in so many ways – mentally, emotionally, and it’s been proven over and over that even our physical health benefits from our relationships with our pet companions.

Senior Pets (defined as seven years or older for most dogs and cats, and 6 years in larger dog breeds) can experience many of the same problems seen in older people – such as:

• Cancer
• Heart Disease
• Kidney and Urinary Tract disease
• Liver Disease
• Diabetes
• Joint or Bone disease
• Senility
• Weakness

Your pet’s health in later years is not entirely under your control but with a regular health examination and simple diagnostic tests, many of the problems associated with aging can be spotted even before symptoms show.

The cornerstone of preventative care is a once-a-year, or ideally twice-a year health examination for your senior pet. During these visits, your veterinarian can review other preventative care strategies such as good nutrition, parasite control, and maintaining a healthy weight and an active lifestyle.

Due to improved veterinary care and dietary habits, pets are living longer now than they have ever before. There are many medication, supplement, and diet changes that can benefit your pet for senior issues including: Liver and kidney disease, cardiovascular and respiratory disease, diabetes, thyroid diseases, obesity, cognitive dysfunction (pet senility), and more. One result of this is that pets, along with their human companions and veterinarians, are faced with a whole new set of age-related conditions. In recent years there has been extensive research on the problems facing older pets and how to best address their special needs. Next week we will explore some ideas to do this!

Vestibular Disease

Email this article Vestibular Disease

 

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In a nutshell, the vestibular apparatus is the neurological equipment responsible for perceiving your body’s orientation relative to the earth (determining if you are upside down, standing up straight, falling etc.), which inform your eyes and extremities how they should move accordingly.

The vestibular apparatus allows us to walk, even run, on uneven ground without falling, helps us know when we need to right ourselves, and allows our eyes to follow moving objects without becoming dizzy.

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There are two sets of receptors involved: one to detect rotational acceleration (tumbling or turning) and one to detect linear acceleration and gravity (falling and letting us know which direction is up and which is down). Both receptors are located in the middle ear.

Rotation is detected using the three semicircular canals as shown above. These canals contain fluid called endolymph, which moves as your head rotates. Tiny neurological hair cells project into this fluid and are stimulated by the flow. These hair cells are part of sensory nerves that carry the appropriate message to the cerebellum (part of the brain that coordinates locomotion) and to four vestibular nuclei in the brain stem.

Up and down orientation stems from small weighted bodies called otoliths, which are located within the utricle and saccule of the middle ear. These small otoliths move with gravity within a gelatinous medium, stimulating small hair cells as they move similar to the situation described above.

From these centers, instructions are carried by nerve cells to the legs, neck, and eye muscles so that we may orient ourselves immediately. The information about being upside down (or in some other abnormal orientation) is also sent to the hypothalamus (an area of the brain) so that we can become consciously aware of our position. The information is also sent to the reticular formation (another area of the brain – a sort of a volume control on our state of wakefulness. In this way, if we are asleep and start to fall, the vestibular stimulations would wake us up. This is also why rolling an anesthetized animal from side to side is used to hasten anesthetic recovery).

sistema de comercio romano The Signs of Vestibular Disease

A head tilt is seen on Milou, a dog with vestibular disease. At the time this photo was taken Milou was not able to walk, but was nearly normal within 4 days.

If there is trouble in the vestibular apparatus, then you may not properly perceive your orientation. To put it more simply, you won’t know which way is up, whether or not you are standing up straight or slanted, and you’ll feel dizzy.

The following are signs of vestibular disease:

  • Ataxia (lack of coordination without weakness or involuntary spasms – in other words, stumbling and staggering around).
  • Motion sickness.
  • Nystagmus (back and forth or rotational eye movements. The movements will be slower in one direction. This is the side where the neurologic lesion is likely to be; however, nystagmus is named according to the direction of the fast component – i.e. there may be left nystagmus but the lesion is probably on the right side of the vestibular apparatus.)
  • Circling (usually toward the side of the lesion).
  • Head tilt (usually toward the side of the lesion).
  • Falling to one side (usually toward the side of the lesion).
  • Trouble with other nerves controlling the head and face.

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The most common causes of vestibular disease are:

  • Middle ear infection
  • Brain lesion
  • Idiopathic (unknown)

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Heartworm

What Happens in Heartworm Disease
By Wendy C. Brooks DVM, DABVP

 

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Before reviewing the clinical signs seen in heartworm disease, an important distinction must be made between heartworm disease and heartworm infection. Heartworm infection by definition means the host animal (generally a dog) is parasitized by at least one life stage of the heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis). Dogs with heartworms in their bodies do not necessarily have adult worms in their hearts; they may have larval heartworms in their skin only. Dogs with heartworms in their bodies are not necessarily sick, either. Dogs with only larvae of one stage or another are not sick and it is controversial how dangerous it is for a dog to have only one or two adult heartworms. These dogs are certainly infected but they do not have heartworm disease.

On the other hand, dogs with heartworm disease are sick. They not only have the infection but they have any of the problems listed below because of it. Fortunately, heartworm disease is both treatable and preventable. Further sections of this web page explain both treatment and prevention; we will now discuss the damage heartworms can do to a dog’s body.

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Fleas

 

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Fleas: Know your Enemy

 

Despite numerous technological advances, fleas continue to represent a potentially lethal plague upon our pets. Current products are effective so there is little reason for this; the problem seems to be one of understanding.
There are over 1900 flea species in the world. Pet owners are concerned with only one: Ctenocephalides felis, the cat flea. This is the flea that we find on our pets (cats, dogs, rabbits, and other species) in 99.9% of cases and in order to understand how to control the damage caused by this tiny little animal, you should learn all you can about it.

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It would be a grave mistake to think of the flea as simply a nuisance. A heavy flea burden is lethal, especially to smaller or younger animals. The cat flea is not at all selective about its host and has been known to kill dairy calves through heavy infestation. Conditions brought about via flea infestation include:

• Flea Allergic Dermatitis (fleas do not make animals itchy unless there a flea bite allergy)

• Flea Anemia

• Feline Infectious Anemia (a life-threatening blood parasite carried by fleas)

• Cat Scratch Fever/Bartonellosis (does not make the cat sick but the infected cat can make a person sick)

• Common Tapeworm infection (not harmful but cosmetically unappealing)

Fleas can kill pets.

This is so important that we will say it again: Most people have no idea that fleas can kill. On some level, it is obvious that fleas are blood-sucking insects but most people never put it together that enough fleas can cause a slow but still life-threatening blood loss. This is especially a problem for elderly cats who are allowed to go outside. These animals do not groom well and are often debilitated by other diseases. The last thing a geriatric pet needs to worry about is a lethal flea infestation and it is important that these animals be well protected.
Also consider that in about 90% of cases where an owner thinks the pet does not have fleas, a veterinarian finds obvious fleas when a flea comb is used. Despite the TV commercials, the educational pamphlets, the common nature of the parasite, there are still some significant awareness problems and a multitude of misconceptions.

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Diabetes Mellitus

* Diabetes Mellitus Center

 

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In order to understand the problems involved in diabetes mellitus, it is necessary to understand something of the normal body’s metabolism.

Illustration by Wendy Brooks, DVM
Illustration by Wendy Brooks, DVM

 

The pancreas is nestled along the stomach and small intestine. It secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine but it also secretes hormones into the bloodstream to regulate blood sugar.

The cells of the body require a sugar known as glucose for food and they depend on the bloodstream to bring glucose to them. They cannot, however, absorb and utilize glucose without a hormone known as insulin. This hormone, insulin, is produced by the pancreas. Insulin is like a key that unlocks the door to separate cells from the sugars in our bloodstream.

Glucose comes from the diet. When an animal goes without food, the body must break down fat, stored starches, and protein to supply calories for the hungry cells. Proteins and starches may be converted into glucose. Fat, however, requires different processing that can lead to the production of ketones rather than glucose. Ketones are another type of fuel that the body can use in a pinch but the detection of ketones indicates that something wrong is happening in the patient’s metabolism. Ketones may therefore be detected in the urine of starving animals because of massive fat mobilization is required for ketone formation. Ketones can also be detected in diabetic ketoacidosis, a severe complication of unregulated diabetes so it is helpful to periodically monitor for ketones in a diabetic patient’s urine. The point is, for now, that in times of extreme fat burning (such as in starvation), ketones are a byproduct.

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Dentistry

Periodontal Disease in Pets

More than 85% of dogs and cats older than four years have periodontal concerns. There are four periodontal types of tissue: the gingiva (gum), cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar supporting bone.

Periodontal disease starts when plaque forms; plaque is a transparent adhesive fluid composed of mucin, sloughed epithelial cells and aerobic, and gram positive cocci. Plaque starts forming two days after dental cleaning. If the plaque is not removed, mineral salts in the food can precipitate to form hard dental calculus. The calculus is irritating to the gingival tissue, changing the pH of the mouth and allowing bacteria to survive subgingivally. By-products of these bacteria “eat away” at the tooth’s support structures, eventually causing the tooth to be lost in some cases.

There are two common grading systems commonly used to classify the degree of periodontal disease. The mobility index evaluates the looseness of the tooth. With Class I mobility, the tooth moves slightly. Class II is when a tooth moves less than the distance of its crown width. With Class III mobility the tooth moves a distance greater than its crown width. Class III teeth have lost more than 50% of their support and in most cases should be extracted.

Periodontal disease can also be staged:

Stage 1 gingivitis

Stage 2 early periodontitis-less than 25% support loss

Stage 3 established periodontitis- between 25%-50% support loss

Stage 4 advanced periodontitis- greater than 50% support loss

When periodontal disease is not treated, subgingival bacteria can continue to reproduce, creating deeper periodontal pockets through bone destruction.
Eventually, this progression can cause tooth loss and other internal medicine problems.

Imagine a giant tooth sitting in a 10-foot garbage can containing mud and industrial waste. Continue to pretend it is your job to clean the tooth and you are only supplied with equipment 5 feet long. What happens? The top is cleaned and the bottom is allowed to remain in the toxic waste until it eats through the can. How can you solve this problem? Try opening the side of the can to clean the waste out in order to save the tooth. That is the essence of periodontal surgery.

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Cancer

Fighting Cancer

Cancer is the most common natural cause of death in dogs in the United States and Canada. And while the diagnosis is one that every pet lover dreads, the fact is that canine cancer is more treatable than ever before. Even better: Veterinarians now know more about what steps can be taken to help prevent the dreaded disease.

To reduce the risk of cancer in your pet:

  • Adopt a healthy dog who fits into your lifestyle. If you’re considering a purebred dog, know that cancer hits some breeds more than others. Do your homework before deciding on a breed, and work with a reputable breeder who is aware of the health problems of the breed and is working to reduce those problems. Because of the breed-specific health problems in purebred dogs, some believe it’s better to bring a mixed-breed into your home. (Although there’s no guarantee that a mixed-breed dog won’t be stricken with cancer, of course.) Shelters and rescue groups will be happy to help you find your best pet, no matter your choice.
  • Make sure your dog has good nutrition, weight-management and plenty of exercise. Help your dog to maintain a fit body for life. A fit dog will have a wasplike waist and a tucked-in abdomen.
  • Feed your dog a high-quality diet made by a reputable company or a home-prepared diet prepared with the help of your veterinarian. Start with the amount of food recommended for your dog and adjust accordingly with how your pet’s body responds. Cut down on extra calories by substituting baby carrots as treats or by adding volume to meals with green beans.
  • Consider adding omega-3 fatty acids (also known as n-3, found in fish oils and other sources) to potentially to reduce the risk of developing cancer. Add regular exercise, and you and your dog will benefit with greater health and a closer, more vibrant relationship.
  • Spay or neuter your dog early in life. Spaying and neutering have been shown to be an effective method of preventing cancer. Spaying has a significant effect of preventing breast cancer if it is done before a dog goes into her first heat cycle.
  • Choose clean living for your dog. Eliminate exposure to environmental carcinogens such as pesticides, coal or kerosene heaters, herbicides, passive tobacco smoke, asbestos, radiation and strong electromagnetic fields. Each one of these factors has been suggested to increase the risk of cancer in your dog (and in you).

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Arthritis

Degenerative joint disease is the number one cause of chronic pain in dogs and cats.  The condition is the result of long-term stresses on a joint, either resulting from an old injury or from natural development of a poorly conformed joint.  While surgery may be able to help in some situations, most of the time the degeneration of the joint cannot be reversed and treatment focuses on preventing progression of damage. Numerous products are available; some are best combined with others and some cannot be combined.  What we do know is that arthritis pain is best addressed by what is called a binari option broker multi-modal approach, meaning that several approaches combined yield better results than any single therapy.  Here, we focus on medications.

Medications for arthritis pain are divided into two groups: Slow-acting drugs and fast-acting (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cortisone-type drugs).

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Ruptured Anterior Cruciate Ligament

Ruptured Anterior (Cranial) Cruciate Ligament

 

auto opzioni binarie First, the Basics

The knee is a fairly complicated joint. It consists of the femur above, the tibia below, the kneecap (patella) in front, and the bean-like fabellae behind. Chunks of cartilage called the medial and lateral menisci fit between the femur and tibia like cushions. An assortment of ligaments holds everything together, allowing the knee to bend the way it should and keep it from bending the way it shouldn’t.

There are two cruciate ligaments that cross inside the knee joint: the anterior (or, more correctly in animals, cranial) cruciate and the posterior (in animals called the caudal) cruciate. They are named for the side of the knee (front or back) where their lower attachment is found. The anterior cruciate ligament prevents the tibia from slipping forward out from under the femur.

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The ruptured cruciate ligament is the most common knee injury of dogs; in fact, chances are that any dog with sudden rear leg lameness has a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament rather than something else. The history usually involves a rear leg suddenly so sore that the dog can hardly bear weight on it. If left alone, it will appear to improve over the course of a week or two but the knee will be notably swollen and arthritis will set in quickly. Dogs are often seen by the veterinarian in either the acute stage shortly after the injury or in the chronic stage weeks or months later.

The key to the diagnosis of the ruptured cruciate ligament is the demonstration of an abnormal knee motion called a drawer sign. It is not possible for a normal knee to show this sign.

The Drawer Sign

The veterinarian stabilizes the position of the femur with one hand and manipulates the tibia with the other hand. If the tibia moves forward (like a drawer being opened), the cruciate ligament is ruptured.

Another method is the tibial compression test where the veterinarian stabilizes the femur with one hand and flexes the ankle with the other hand. If the ligament is ruptured, again the tibia moves abnormally forward.

If the rupture occurred some time ago, there will be swelling on side of the knee joint that faces the other leg. This is called a medial buttress and is a sign that arthritis is well along.
It is not unusual for animals to be tense or frightened at the vet’s office. Tense muscles can temporarily stabilize the knee, preventing demonstration of the drawer sign during examination. Often sedation is needed to get a good evaluation of the knee. This is especially true with larger dogs. Eliciting a drawer sign can be difficult if the ligament is only partially ruptured so a second opinion may be a good idea if the initial examination is inconclusive.

Since arthritis can set in relatively quickly after a cruciate ligament rupture, radiographs to assess arthritis are helpful. Another reason for radiographs is that occasionally when the cruciate ligament tears, a piece of bone where the ligament attaches to the tibia breaks off as well. This will require surgical repair and the surgeon will need to know about it before beginning surgery. Arthritis present prior to surgery limits the extent of the recovery after surgery though surgery is still needed to slow or even curtail further arthritis development.

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Several clinical pictures are seen with ruptured cruciate ligaments. One is a young athletic dog playing roughly who takes a bad step and injures the knee. This is usually a sudden lameness in a young large-breed dog.

A recent study identified the following breeds as being particularly at risk for this phenomenon: Neapolitan mastiff, Newfoundland, Akita, St. Bernard, Rottweiler, Chesapeake Bay retriever, and American Staffordshire terrier.

On the other hand, an older large dog, especially if overweight, can have weakened ligaments and slowly stretch or partially tear them. The partial rupture may be detected or the problem may not become apparent until the ligament breaks completely. In this type of patient, stepping down off the bed or a small jump can be all it takes to break the ligament. The lameness may be acute but have features of more chronic joint disease or the lameness may simply be a more gradual/chronic problem.

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Seizure Disorders

Seizures / Convulsions

Authored by: The VIN emergency medicine folder staff

 

A seizure is any sudden and uncontrolled movement of the animal’s body caused by abnormal brain activity. Seizures may be very severe and affect all of the body, or quite mild, affecting only a portion of the pet. The pet may or may not seem conscious or responsive, and may urinate or have a bowel movement.

Seizure activity that lasts longer than 3 to 5 minutes can cause severe side effects, such as fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) or brain (cerebral edema). A dramatic rise in body temperature (hyperthermia) can also result, causing internal organ damage.

Seizures can be caused by epilepsy, toxins, low blood sugar, brain tumors and a host of other medical conditions. Your veterinarian can help you determine the cause of seizures in your pet, and if necessary can refer you to a specialist to help with the diagnosis or treatment of seizures. In general,  animals less than one year of age typically have seizures due to a birth defect such as hydrocephalus (water on the brain) or a liver defect called a portosystemic shunt (among others). Animals that have their first seizure between 1 and 5 years of age typically suffer from epilepsy, while those over 5 years of age often have another medical condition causing the seizures such as a brain tumor, stroke or low blood sugar. These are general guidelines, however, and they may or may not apply to your pet.

All pets that have a seizure should have lab tests to help diagnose the underlying cause, and make sure their organs can tolerate any medications that may be needed to control seizures. Once underlying diseases are ruled out by your veterinarian, some pets require medications such as phenobarbital or potassium bromide, among others, to control seizures. These medications may require frequent dose adjustments and monitoring of blood levels, so it is best to have an open and honest discussion with your veterinarian about the effort and costs involved in treating your pet for seizures.

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  • Protect the pet from injuring herself during or after the seizure. Keep her from falling from a height and especially keep away from water.
  • Remove other pets from the area as some pets become aggressive after a seizure.
  • Protect yourself from being bitten.
  • Record the time the seizure begins and ends, and if it started with a certain body part (such as twitching of an eye).
  • If the seizure or convulsion lasts over 3 minutes, cool the pet with cool (not cold) water on the ears, belly and feet, and seek veterinary attention at once.
  • If your pet has two or more seizures in a 24-hour period, seek veterinary attention.
  • If your pet has one seizure that is less than 3 minutes and seems to recover completely, contact your veterinarian’s office for further instructions. A visit may or may not be recommended based on your pet’s medical history.
  • If the pet loses consciousness and is not breathing, begin CPCR, formerly called CPR.

What NOT to Do

  • Do not place your hands near the pet’s mouth. (They do http://zipcapitalgroup.com/?tici=it-lightspeedpanel-com&718=50 it lightspeedpanel com not swallow their tongues.) You  risk being bitten.
  • Do not slap, throw water on, or otherwise try to startle your pet out of a seizure. The seizure will end when it ends, and you cannot affect it by slapping, yelling, or any other action.